Category Archives: Programming

All that has to do with programming languages: news, frameworks, software and tutorials.

CJS Framework – Abandoned

The project is marked as abandoned because:

  • The name CJS Framework was already used in the context of other frameworks, I don't like it anymore and it doesn't mirror the current purpose of the framework
  • I don't have time and resources to achieve the ambitious requirements that I decided in the past (supporting interchangable classes between four languages and make it a standard is too expensive. I cannot open an open source project because it is not convenient for my current job, too much implications)
  • The framework evolved into different directions. I changed the name to TM Framework (TextureMind Framework) that is a useful collection of classes to develop my own programs in C++ or C# when the projects will be so complicated to require it. Being a framework slave in never a good thing for the developers, I saw developers becoming incapable of doing the simplest things in C starting from scratch, when they were anchored on Qt, Boost, Unity, Unreal Engine 4 or their own frameworks. I saw also good programmers becoming incapable of doing good plain programming (not even a pacman game) without projecting frameworks that would require years to be finished, so I don't want to feed this trend.

After a long research for the perfect crossplatfrom multitarget language i didn't find anything that satified my expectations. I wanted to create c++, c#, java and javascript projects around a set of basic classes, functionalities and serialization to import/export files in a custom format.

In a first evaluation, Haxe language with json seemed to be the perfect choise, but after using it i realized that the code produced for the languages of my interest is too heavy, bad indented and hard to reuse in the context of a specific project. That's because Haxe and the other multitarget languages are studied to produce a final result (i.e. a game) and not a source code that is easy to understand for the human reader or to include in other part of a wide project. For instance, if i create an Hello world example with haxe and convert it to c#, it will generates alot of useless .cs files in a well structured (and unreadable) project that you can build and run at first attempt, but that is barely readable and hard to reuse into other clean c# projects. If you are thinking of creating a library in haxe to include the source code into your projects, it's better if you change idea: the final result of your cpp, c#, java or javascript projects may end to a gigantic mess.

For this reason, I decided to create from scratch a new framework that is called CJS Framework, which stands for CppJavaScriptSharp Framework. It's mainly a full bridge between these four languages (but it's not improbable that it will support other languages in the future). The basic idea is very simple: make a set of classes that are useful in a project and a serialization system that easly load objects regardless of the used language. For instance, we can decide to take advantage of the .NET framework and produce an editor in C# to manipulate the maps of a game that will be programmed in javascript and it will run on facebook or the web browser. Or a server application in c++ that communicates in a binary format with a client application for html5 coded in javascript. The framework is projected to satify easly all these tasks and much more.

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Unrelated Engine – Deferred Rendering and Antialiasing

I tried to implement the explicit multisample antialiasing and I got good results, but it's slow on a GeForce 9600GT. A scene of 110 fps became 45 fps with only four samples, just to point out the slow down. While I was jumping to the ceiling for the amazing image quality of a REAL antialiasing with deferred shading (not the fake crap called FXAA) I fell down to the floor after I seen the fps, what a shame.

UnrelatedEngine01

Anyway, I decided to change from a deferred shading to a deferred lighting model just to implement a good trick in order to use the classic multisample (that in my card can do pretty well also with 16 samples!) reading from the light accumulation buffer in the final step and writing the geometry to the screen with the antialiasing enabled. The result is a little weird, but you can fix it by using that crap fxaa on the light accumulation buffer which is smoother than the other image components. For example, I can use: a mipmapping or anisotropic filtering to eliminate the texture map aliasing, a FXAA to eliminate the light accumulation buffer aliasing and finally a MSAA to eliminate the geometry aliasing.

ps: I used the nanosuit model from this site: www.gfx-3d-model.com/2009/09/nanosuit-3d-model/

TSREditor – Last screenshots

TSREditor is a huge editor in the style of Blender3D  projected to create or edit the resources like textures, 3d models, sound and levels for games and other stuff.

TSREditor07_l

In spite of the large amount of work needed to reach a decent version of this software, I decided that it will be free as a part of my Unrelated Framework. In this moment I'm far from a decent beta version to release, but I can show you two nice screenshots of the program at work.

TSREditor06_l

Unrelated Engine – Work in progress

This is the first "work in progress" video of my 3d engine called Unrelated Engine. Some complex animated models come from Doom 3. They were converted to a maximum of 4 weights per vertex as well as the identical vertices have been cancelled to improve the speed. The shader language was used to obtain a large amount of skinned meshes and complex materials with a reasonable speed.

The 3d models are from doom3 and from http://www.models-resource.com/, they were used only to test my engine and to make this video. The rights of these 3d models and the music are reserved by their respective authors.

Unrelated Engine – A nice test with Mario 64 map

I created a nice video with an engine that I'm still developing and that is part of my Unrelated Framework. It uses:

- OpenGL (to draw the graphics)
- DevIL (to import images)
- Assimp (to import 3d models)

The 3d models are from http://www.models-resource.com/, they were used only to test my engine and to make this video. The rights of these 3d models and the music are reserved by their respective authors.

Unrelated Framework – Inclusion of OpenIL/DevIL

OpenIL is a library with very powerful image loading capabilities and I decided to include it in my framework. My standard can handle several image formats like the classic 8 bit RGB or more advanced  formats like 16 bit RGB or High Dynamic Range. The images are imported from file and used maintaining the original format (if it's possible).  For other feature check  OpenIL official web site (http://openil.sourceforge.net/)

Supports loading of:

* Windows Bitmap - .bmp
* Dr. Halo - .cut
* Multi-PCX - .dcx
* Dicom - .dicom, .dcm
* DirectDraw Surface - .dds
* OpenEXR - .exr
* Flexible Image Transport System - .fits, .fit
* Heavy Metal: FAKK 2 - .ftx
* Radiance High Dynamic - .hdr
* Macintosh icon - .icns
* Windows icon/cursor - .ico, .cur
* Interchange File Format - .iff
* Infinity Ward Image - .iwi
* Graphics Interchange Format - .gif
* Jpeg - .jpg, .jpe, .jpeg
* Jpeg 2000 - .jp2
* Interlaced Bitmap - .lbm
* Homeworld texture - .lif
* Half-Life Model - .mdl
* MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3 - .mp3
* Palette - .pal
* Kodak PhotoCD - .pcd
* ZSoft PCX - .pcx
* Softimage PIC - .pic
* Portable Network Graphics - .png
* Portable Anymap - .pbm, .pgm, .pnm, .pnm
* Alias | Wavefront - .pix
* Adobe PhotoShop - .psd
* PaintShop Pro - .psp
* Pixar - .pxr
* Raw data - .raw
* Homeworld 2 Texture - .rot
* Silicon Graphics - .sgi, .bw, .rgb, .rgba
* Creative Assembly Texture - .texture
* Truevision Targa - .tga
* Tagged Image File Format - .tif
* Gamecube Texture - .tpl
* Unreal Texture - .utx
* Quake 2 Texture - .wal
* Valve Texture Format - .vtf
* HD Photo - .wdp, .hdp
* X Pixel Map - .xpm
* Doom graphics

Supports saving of:

* Windows Bitmap - .bmp
* DirectDraw Surface - .dds
* OpenEXR - .exr
* C-style Header - .h
* Radiance High Dynamic - .hdr
* Jpeg - .jpg
* Jpeg 2000 - .jp2
* Palette - .pal
* ZSoft PCX - .pcx
* Portable Network Graphics - .png
* Portable Anymap - .pbm, .pgm, .pnm, .pnm
* Adobe PhotoShop - .psd
* Raw data - .raw
* Silicon Graphics - .sgi, .bw, .rgb, .rgba
* Truevision Targa - .tga
* Tagged Image File Format - .tif
* Valve Texture Format - .vtf

This is an example of how it works in my framework:

C_Image *newImage = new C_Image();
//load from file
newImage->ImportFormFile("test.jpg");
newImage->ImportFormFile(UF_FILE_JPG, "test.jpg");
//export to file
newImage->ExportToFile(UF_FILE_HDR, "test.hdr");
//set file format jpeg compression
newImage->SetFileFormat(UF_FileFormat_JPG(50)); //the image will be saved in my format with a jpeg quality of 50
newImage->SaveToFile("test.img");

Gianpaolo Ingegneri
Copyright @ 2010 – All right reserved

Unrelated Framework – Inclusion of ZLib

The Unrelated Framework got support for ziv-lempel compression of data using ZLib. The classes can be compressed in memory, loaded and saved with few rows of code and without limits. For example:

//this works only with resources like images, fonts, sounds, etc...
C_Image *newImage = new C_Image();
newImage->ImportFromFile("test.tga"); //load image from file
newImage->SetFileFormat(UF_FileFormat_Zip(6)); //set a zip file format of 6th level
newImage->SaveToFile("test.img"); //save the zipped resource on file, simple isn't it?

//if you want to load...
newImage->LoadFromFile("test.img"); //the system understands that it was zipped
newImage->SetFileFormat(NULL); //set it NULL if you don't want the zip compression in the future

or

//this can be used for every kind of object

C_Image *newImage= new C_Image();
newImage->ImportFromFile("test.tga"); //load image from file
C_Object_Zip *objZip = new C_Object_Zip(); //init a zip container
objZip->CompressObject(newImage, 6); //compress the image object
objZip->SaveToFile("test.zob"); //save the zipped object on file
delete newImage;

//if you want to load...
objZip->LoadFromFile("test.zob"); //load the zipped object from file
newImage = (C_Image *)objZip->UncompressObject(); //get the uncompressed object
delete objZip; //delete and free the zip object memory

Gianpaolo Ingegneri
Copyright @ 2010 – All right reserved

Unrelated Framework – Gui and Gui Editor

Finally I completed the GUI of my framework. The best feature is that the Gui can work in two modes: via software or using the OpenGL. It's  very helpful for cross platform compatibility, for video games or other OpenGL purpose.

GuiEditor01

The Gui is in his first version but it has all the widgets necessary to create professional applications. An interesting feature is that you don't need to program a single row of code to create particular interfaces: with the Gui Editor you can easily project all kind of professional interfaces and load them in your program using few functions. You don't need to code the widgets to make them work properly.  In this way you can save hours of programming.

There is a full list of widgets implemented:

- Button
- Radio button
- CheckBox
- Form
- Frame Window
- FrameBox
- PictureBox
- ScrollBar
- Scroll space
- TextBox
- ComboBox
- Menu
- ListView
- TreeView
- ToolBar
- Image button
- Graphic Api Viewer

Of course the GUI was coded in C++, it's object oriented and it's an integrative part of my Unrelated Framework.

Gianpaolo Ingegneri
Copyright @ 2010 – All right reserved

Ultra Fast Interpolation (via software)

In general, interpolation is a method used to construct a range of values from a set of data points. In digital image computing there are several methods of interpolation to improve the aspect of a transformed image but there is a problem: all of them are too slow to work via software in real time. Infact, we can see fast interpolations in 3d games only because they are performed via hardware by the graphic card (infact in the past it was very difficult to see an interpolation performed in real time).  However, interpolation is usefull  not only for 3d engines but they are an important part of digital image computing so there is a real need to develop a method to make it faster, expecially if you have to work with a large amount of images at the same time. For this reason I have programmed from scratch a set of  optimized algorithms of interpolation that are definite as in the past... but 100 times faster! The only limitation is that they can be used only for scale trasform but numerically they are perfect and faster at the same time.

UltraFastInterpolation

Moreover, they are useful to generate procedural images in real time, like textures, that can be used in 3d engine or in some paint softwares where you cannot have a 3d card to speed up all the stuff. In this demo you can see the high performaces of different algorithms with images of 16 bit per pixel. To make sure that my interpolation is numerically perfect, I have included also the calculus of the normal map and the bump mapping effect. With biquadratic interpolation you will obtain a still perfect scaled bump map because the normal map calculus is derivative and the biquadratic is a second order reconstruction filter.

There are the performances on my computer:

Zoom 1x (on a 512x512 image)

- Nearest: 400 fps - Bilinear: 270 fps - Biquadratic: 80 fps

Zoom 4x (on a 512x512 image)

- Nearest: 965 fps - Bilinear: 780 fps - Biquadratic: 245 fps

Zoom 16x (on a 512x512 image)

- Nearest: 1405 fps - Bilinear: 1165 fps - Biquadratic: 390 fps

As you can see, the speed of the algorithm is directly proportional to the size of the zoom, however it is very fast also at the minimum size of 1x. This condition is very useful if you have to resize images or to generate textures with a large amount of stretched layers, like perlin noise. CPU: Intel 2 QuadCore 2333 Mhz; RAM: 4 GB DDRII 800Mhz

Gianpaolo Ingegneri
Copyright @ 2010 – All right reserved

Unrelated Framework – Abandoned

The project started from a small framework that I coded for the Amiga 1200. Now the project is much more advanced and it has been developed for many years on pc/windows platforms. In the past it was called Ultimate Framework but there were already several frameworks with the same name and I decided to rename it to Unrelated Framework .

Some features:

- Programmed entirely in C++
- Serialization of Classes
- Cross-platform design
- New image format for digital image processing

- New surface format for computer graphics
- New format for multi channel textures (color, alpha, bump, normals, z-buffer …)
- Algorithms studied to work also via software
- Proprietary format for bitmap fonts
- Powerful procedural generator of textures, static and animated
- Wrapper of OpenGL, OpenCV, OpenEXR, FreeType, etc…
- Flexible GUI studied to work via software and via hardware

This framework is still work in progress and I used it to produce many of the software that you can see in this site.

Gianpaolo Ingegneri
Copyright @ 2011 - All right reserved

Texture Generation V1.0

This time it was a little bit harder. As you can see in this video, my engine can generate in real time very complex textures with the maximum detail at the maximum speed possible.

Each texture is generated in real time at the frame rate showed on the top-left corner of the window (the "generation" label).

- Lumps (512x512, 200 objs, 16 bpp, 345 FPS)
- Blobs (512x512, 16 bpp, 107 FPS)
- Perlin noise (512x512, 8 octaves, 16 bpp, 115 FPS)

Also, the normal map and the bump mapping are calculated in real time. I used 16 bit per pixel to have more precision when I get the normal map (for more informations check my High Static Range video). Precision and speed of this engine are awesome. The final result can loop in all horizontal and vertical directions.

CPU: Intel 2 QuadCore 2333 Mhz; RAM: 4 GB DDRII 800Mhz

©2009 Gianpaolo Ingegneri

High Static Range

This demo shows a new feature about the texture generation engine implemented in my Unrelated Framework. The normalmap used by bump mapping is calculated on the base of an heightmap generated with two different methods: Low Static Range and High Static Range. The enviroment bump mapping shows the difference in quality between the two ranges.

The first range uses only 8 bits per pixel that is too low to represent a continuous surface like the sphere generated in this example and as result we can see many rings on the surface during the light effect. On the contrary, an high range of 16 bits per pixel is perfect to have a light effect on a continuous surface infact we don't have any kind of imperfection. I could use the famous High Dynamic Range to generate the height map, but in my opinion it could be too expensive for the use of memory and the lack of speed (32 bits floating point per pixel, or 16 bits half-float has continuous conversions because cpu doesn't support it).

©2009 Gianpaolo Ingegneri

Get Ascii code from keyboard on windows/c++ (Ita)

Gli eventi windows per la gestione dell'input della tastiera non restituiscono direttamente un codice ascii ma uno molto più intrippato chiamato Virtual Key, studiato per consentire anche la gestione di quei tasti che non fanno parte del testo (come i cursori, il tasto stampa, etc...) o la conversione diretta in formati più avanzati, come l'unicode.

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Graphics effects using chunky-to-planar on amiga/c (Ita)

Il cosiddetto modo planar è sempre stato un impedimento per quei programmatori che avevano intenzione di creare effetti grafici tridimensionali sull'Amiga, cosa che invece riusciva facilissima sui pc perchè supportavano nativamente il modo chunky. Esiste infatti una famosa disputa tra chi difendeva le peculiarità del planar (utile per i giochi 2d) e chi invece ne esaltava i difetti (inutile per i giochi 3d), resta comunque una verità indiscutibile: senza chunky non è possibile lavorare direttamente con i pixel, e questa è una gravissima limitazione per chi vuole realizzare effetti grafici di qualsiasi tipo, cioè non ancorati a certe particolari caratteristiche dell'hardware, come rotazioni di immagini, motori in texture mapping, bump mapping, etc.

Fortunatamente esistono delle tecniche di conversione che permettono di minimizzare queste differenze e rendere la vita più facile ai programmatori che tutt'ora, per scopi puramente hobbystici, hanno intenzione di sviluppare qualche piccolo lavoro grafico su questa macchina del passato. Anch'io mi ci sono cimentato con esiti positivi e dato che in rete il materiale scarseggia ho deciso di pubblicare in questo articolo un piccolo progetto che incorpora le tecniche di conversione c2p e p2c più veloci (programmate in assembler) con un esempio di utilizzo all'interno di un listato in c per la visualizzazione degli effetti grafici in tempo reale.

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Image scaling with subsampling technique (Ita)

Il sottocampionamento, noto anche come subsampling, è un algoritmo che permette di ridurre il numero di campioni di un segnale digitale oppure di un'immagine senza andare incontro, durante l'inevitabile perdita di informazione, al famoso difetto di aliasing. E' importante ridurre il più possibile questo difetto, perchè l'aliasing potrebbe provocare nei suoni un fastidioso brusio oppure nelle immagini una percezione di forme imprecise o addirittura totalmente alterate.

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